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LED is short for ‘Light Emitting Diode’. LEDs are semiconductor diodes or electronic devices, that permit current to flow in only one direction. The diode is formed by bringing two slightly different materials together to form a PN junction.

In a PN junction, the N side contains negative charge carriers, that is electrons, and the P side contains positive charge carriers, that is holes,which indicate the absence of electrons.

When a forward voltage is applied to the PN junction electrons move from the N side towards the P side and holes move from the P side towards the N side and combined in the depletion zone between these regions. Some of these recombination's are radiative in which energy is released in the form of Light.